The word hybrid has long been known to people. It means mixing the incompatible. There are hybrid plants, animals and many other organisms and things on the planet. Recently, this term began to be used in the manufacture of cars with an unusual device power unit, hybrid car !
In the automotive industry, hybrid vehicles began to appear. The reason for their occurrence was the unstable situation in the fuel market and, perhaps more significantly, the increase in environmental requirements for power units of cars around the world.
At the end of the XIX century on the roads of Europe there were the first auto-tanks with a hybrid power plant. Increased demand for new products forced the authors of these cars to start releasing their offspring in small batches.
The innovators of the first hybrid cars were the designers from France.
In the car repair shop of the French company Parisienne des Voitures Electrigues in 1897 the first car was built and launched, on which a hybrid motor was installed. It was then produced serially.
Following the French, in the American continent three years later, a motorcar comes off the assembly line of General Electric, also equipped with a hybrid power unit based on a 4-cylinder gasoline engine. And the company Walker Vehicle Company of Chicago the release of trucks equipped with hybrid engines, was engaged until 1940.
Over time, humanity began to forget about hybrid cars. But fuel crises that arise in all corners of the planet, push automakers to produce cars that are equipped with hybrid power units.
What Is a Hybrid Car?
If you translate from Latin the word hybrid, it literally means a cross between different forms. Automakers adopted this term when manufacturing machines that use two types of engines as power plant serial internal combustion engines and electric (also there are models with pneumomotors working on compressed air). In modern hybrid cars, the onboard computer monitors the operation of the units. This factor allows the driver to fully focus on the road. The cars of the hybrid scheme have two types of power units:
Lightweight hybrid scheme (mild hybrids), in this type of car the main job is taken over by the internal combustion engine, and the electric motors perform auxiliary functions.
Full-hybrid, with this scheme, the electric motor performs full functions on a par with the ICE. At low speeds takes over the entire load, and the internal combustion engine in this case does not work.
How Does It Work?
Manufacturers of hybrid cars have designed several schemes of operation of power units.
Sequential operation of engines:
Has a relatively simple design of power plants. Carburetor or diesel engines through the drive rotate the generator. The electrical voltage generated by the generator goes to the batteries, and from them to the drive motors located in the wheel mechanisms.
Parallel installation scheme:
Provides for the operation of the internal combustion engine as the main, when driving the car. The electric motor, which has a large enough power reserve, is of secondary importance. It is included in the work during braking or during the acceleration of the car. In doing so, it performs a regenerative function, that is, generates electricity, which is then transferred to the batteries. The onboard computer manages the stable operation of both power plants.
Mixed type of work of engines:
In this hybrid car design, the above described powertrain operation schemes are combined. The beginning of the car’s movement is ensured by an electric motor running from accumulators, and the internal combustion engine at this time operates on an electric generator. When speed is set, the internal combustion engine switches to the driving wheel drive. All these processes help to cope with the planetary mechanism installed on the car.
As already described, the beginning of the car provides an electric motor, which receives electricity from the batteries. Due to this, the machine starts moving smoothly and noiselessly. When speed dialing, reaching a certain point, the on-board computer is included in the engine operation. The operation of the internal combustion engine rotates the generator, which replenishes the electricity in the batteries, expended when driving the car. When driving a car in general mode, only its front drive is used, and when full loads are involved, the full drive is activated.
You can also read the article about What Is The Working Principle of a Hybrid Engine? in 2-3 minutes and get some extra information.